The New England Colonies are also referred to as the North Colonies:
- Fact 1 - Geography: The geography of New England consisted of mountains thick with trees, rivers and poor rocky soil that was difficult to farm and unsuitable for crops
- Fact 2 - Natural Resources: Fish, whales, forests. New England imported agricultural products from other colonies
- Fact 3 - Religion: No religious freedom as the Puritans did not tolerate any other form of religion
- Fact 4 - Climate: Coldest of the three regions, mild and short summers leading to long, cold winters but less disease than in the warmer colonies
- Fact 5 - Trade / Exports: Fish, whale products, ships, timber products, furs, maple syrup, copper, livestock products, horses, rum, whiskey and beer - refer to Colonial Times
- Fact 6: Farming was difficult for crops like wheat because of the poor soil but corn, pumpkins, rye, squash and beans were raised
New England Colonies - Economic Activity & Trade
There were considerable differences between the New England, Middle and Southern regions. Economic activities and trade were dependant of the environment in which the Colonists lived. The geography and climate impacted the trade and economic activities of New England Colonies. In the New England towns along the coast, the colonists made their living fishing, whaling, and shipbuilding. The fish included cod, mackerel, herring, halibut, hake, bass and sturgeon. Whale oil was a valuable resource as it could be used in lamps. Farming was difficult in New England for crops like wheat because of the poor soil but corn, pumpkins, rye, squash and beans were planted. The Northern Colonies of New England concentrated in manufacture and focussed on town life and industries such as ship building and the manufacture and export of rum. See Triangular Trade.
New England Colonies Timeline
Discover interesting information and facts about the history of the New England colonies. For a more comprehensive history timeline detailing specific events relating to all of the 13 Colonies refer to Colonial America Time Period. This New England Colonies Timeline provides a list detailing key events and dates of this amazing period in Colonial history. The four New England Colonies of Colonial America included the colonies of New Hampshire, Massachusetts Bay Colony, Rhode Island and Connecticut. A comprehensive list of the key events which are important to the New England Colonies Timeline. Additional interesting information can be found in Facts about the 13 Colonies.
1620: The Pilgrim Fathers, or Pilgrims founded the colony of Plymouth in New England in 1620, located in present-day Massachusetts. The Mayflower Compact was a legal document written by the Pilgrims to specify basic laws and social rules for their new colony.
1620: The Pilgrims, the founders of Plymouth, arrived in 1620. John Mason and Sir Ferdinando Gorges, the "Father of English Colonization in North America" had received land in northern New England which became the Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1628. John Mason eventually formed New Hampshire and the land of Sir Ferdinando Gorges led to Maine. Massachusetts Bay Colony controlled both regions until New Hampshire was given a royal charter in 1679 and Maine was made its own state in 1820.
1630: The Great Migration - Mass migration of thousands of English people to the Americas that took place between 1630 and 1640.
1636: Connecticut was initially settled colonists, led by Thomas Hooker, left the Massachusetts Bay Colony due to dissatisfaction and settled in the Connecticut River Valley. In 1639, three settlements joined to form a unified government creating a document called the Fundamental Orders of Connecticut, the first written constitution in America. King Charles II officially united Connecticut as a single colony in 1662.
1636: Rhode Island. Roger Williams was banished from the Massachusetts Bay Colony and founded Providence. Anne Hutchinson was also banished from the Massachusetts Bay Colony and she settled Portsmouth. Two additional settlements were also formed in the area. All 4 settlements received a charter from England creating their own government eventually called Rhode Island.
1651: 1651 1660 1663 The Navigation Acts. The New England colonies represent a lucrative source of wealth and trade. Navigation Acts regulate colonial trade and enable England to collect duties (taxes)
1662: King Charles II officially united Connecticut as a single colony
1673: The Plantation Duty Act
1675: The Lords of Trade are appointed in England to enforce the new mercantile system and maximize potential profits for England
1679: New Hampshire. John Mason received land in northern New England which formed the Massachusetts Bay Colony. John Mason eventually formed New Hampshire when the region was given a royal charter in 1679
1686: Formation of New England - King James II combines the colonies of Connecticut, Massachusetts Bay Colony, Plymouth, Rhode Island, New York, New Hampshire, East Jersey and West Jersey into a single colony: The Dominion of New England.
1688: King James II appoints Sir Edmund Andros to serve as Captain General and Governor in Chief of New England. Sir Edmund Andros causes dissension with the colonists as he does not have to answer to any elected assembly
1688: 1688 - 1763 The French and Indian Wars between France and Great Britain for lands in North America
1689: Feb 13, 1689 The Glorious Revolution. The Protestant William III and Mary II officially replace the Catholic James II as monarchs of England. The English Bill of Rights which enables Parliament to control laws and taxes
1689: Mar 1689 Glorious Revolution Sparks Revolt in the colonies. Boston militiamen seize Governor-in-Chief Andros and put him in jail. The New England colonies begin to re-establish governments. Jacob Leisler (1640-1691) was a German immigrant who led the insurrection against local colonial officials from 1689 to 1691 in colonial New York
1691: Plymouth joined with the Massachusetts Bay Colony
1691: Salem Witchcraft Trials - Hysteria over witchcraft accusations consumes Salem Village, Massachusetts
1696: 1696 Salutary Neglect. The British government establishes the Board of Trade to oversee colonial policies practicing a policy of "Salutary Neglect," in which it gives the colonies considerable freedom in economic matters.
1707: 1707 The Union between England and Scotland created the 'United Kingdom of Great Britain' and the term British, as opposed to English, is then used in reference to the colonists in North America.
1722: Wabanaki-New England War of 1722–1725 aka Father Rale's War or Lovewell's War in Maine
1763: The Royal Proclamation of 1763 was issued October 7, 1763 bringing the introduction of the massive boundary, which was the Proclamation Line between the colonies and Indian Territories
1764: Sugar Act
1765: 1765 The Stamp Act of 1765
1765: The Sons of Liberty was an an organization (a secret society) formed by American Patriots who opposed British measures against the colonists, and agitated for resistance
1767: 1767 Townshend Acts
1770: March 5, 1770: The Boston Massacre during which British troops killed 5 Boston civilians.
1773: Tea Act
1774: December 16: The Boston Tea Party - Massachusetts patriots dressed as Mohawk Indians protested against the British Tea Act
1775: The American Revolution (1775- 1783) ended the Colonial America Time Period
1776: A document declaring the US to be independent of the British Crown was signed on July 4, 1776, by the congressional representatives of the 13 Colonies