basis for the legal argument of the Americans
was that the 1689 English Bill of Rights had put
into place a constitutional form of government
in which the rights and liberties of the
individual were protected under English law. The
American colonists protested that were not
afforded these privileges and that the British
had abused their rights and liberties.
American War for Independence Begins...
All of the 13 British colonies
had become united by the establishment
of Correspondence that communicated the dangers
of 'taxation without representation'
to all American colonists. The
passing of the Intolerable Acts (also called the
the Restraining Acts and the Coercive Acts) were
the last straw for the colonists and their War
for Independence begins...
The American War for Independence
Great Britain were losing patience and in
January 1775, orders were sent from London
prohibiting the meeting of the
Congress. In February 1775 the British
Parliament declared that Massachusetts was in a
state of rebellion. The British sent military
reinforcements to America under the command of
General William Howe, General Henry Clinton, and
General John Burgoyne.
The American War for Independence
- Causes and Events
This overview of the American War of
Independence describes many of
the major causes of the Revolutionary War - important incidents, famous people, conflicts
and battles that occurred during the War for Independence
In accordance with one of the
Intolerable Acts, General Thomas Gage became governor of Massachusetts in 1774.
General Gage soon realised that the American colonists were producing arms,
ammunition and cannon.
April 18, 1775: General Thomas Gage sent British troops marching from Boston
towards Concord. Gage also ordered the arrest of the patriots John Hancock and
Samuel Adams, they were alerted to the threat by Paul Revere. The soldiers were
ordered to seize weapons and gunpowder. Their attempt to destroy the munitions
brought on the Battle of Lexington and the Battle of Concord starting the War
The Continental Congress of colonial delegates, which met in 1774 and adjourned
to meet again in 1775, assembled soon after these two battles and prepared for
war with the British. The Continental Army was initially formed in the Boston
area with George Washington as Commander-in-Chief
George Washington reached Boston soon after the Battle of Bunker Hill, which
made it clear to the British that the Americans would fight. Washington besieged
the British in Boston and in March, 1776, they left the city by water, and
Washington moved his army to the area of New York.
Washington and his forces were attacked by the British, and was driven up the
Hudson River to White Plains pursued by Cornwallis. From there he crossed into
New Jersey, only to be driven across the state and into Pennsylvania
On Christmas night, 1776, Washington re-crossed the Delaware to Trenton, and the
next morning won a victory over the Hessians at the The Battle of Trenton .
On January 3, 1777, Washington won another victory for the Americans at the
Battle of Princeton , and he spent the remainder of the winter at Morristown
In July, 1777, Sir William Howe sailed from New York for Philadelphia. The
forces of Washington travelled overland to confront him. The Americans were
defeated at the Battle of Brandywine, and the city fell into the hands of Howe.
George Washington passed the winter of 1777-1778 at Valley Forge in hills that
were not far from Philadelphia
General Burgoyne was given command of the British forces charged with gaining
control of Lake Champlain and the Hudson River valley. He attempted to cut the
states in two by getting possession of New York state from Lake Champlain to New
York city, and the army under Burgoyne came down from Canada. General Burgoyne
and his troops were captured at Saratoga.
In February, 1778, France made a treaty of alliance with America and sent over a
fleet. Fearing the French fleet would attack New York, the British commander Sir
Henry Clinton left Philadelphia with his army. Washington followed from Valley
Forge, overtook the British resulting in the Battle of Monmouth. The British
then went on to New York, whilst Washington stretched out his army from
Morristown to West Point.
In December, 1778, the British attacked the Southern States. They conquered
Georgia following the Siege of Savannah in the winter of 1778-1779
In the spring of 1780 the British attacked South Carolina and captured General
Benjamin Lincoln following his surrender at the Siege of Charleston.
The American General Horatio Gates then took the field and was defeated at the
Battle of Camden
General Nathanael Greene was sent to the South to take charge of the resistance
to General Cornwallis and drove the British forces in South Carolina and Georgia
into Charleston and Savannah, during 1781 after winning a great American victory
at the Battle of Cowpens
A British force was sent against Greene under Cornwallis who undertook to
fortify Yorktown and hold it. The British were surrounded by Washington and the
French fleet and forced to surrender at the Battle of Yorktown.
On October 19, 1781, the British laid down their arms and surrendered
The British army was decimated and the American War for Independence was
The surrender of the British army at Yorktown had a devastating effect on the
British and Parliament voted against further war in America
Great Britain officially declared an end to hostilities in America on February
In February, 1783 the European countries of Spain, Sweden, Denmark and Russia
recognized the United States of America
On April 11, 1783 Congress officially declared the end to the American
On September 3, 1783 the Peace Treaty of Paris 1783 was signed by the United
States and Great Britain
George Washington delivered his farewell address and resigned his commission as
commander-in-chief on December 23, 1783. Five years later George Washington was
unanimously elected as the first President of the United States of America in
The Treaty of Paris (1783) was ratified by Congress on January 14, 1784 which is
the date that the American Revolutionary War officially ends
The American Revolution War created two countries, Canada and the United States.
The British victories at Quebec City and Fort Cumberland saved the provinces of
Quebec and Nova Scotia from conquest and defined the border with the United
The end of the War for Independence left America taking the first steps to build
the new country that included changing the Colonies to States